The links below include more information about desalination’s cost and energy demands, as well as water supply alternatives, and the proposed Huntington Beach project.

 What experts say 

Reasons to Oppose Desalination, Infographic
Azul, September 2019

The True Cost of Desalination, Infographic
Orange County Coastkeeper, September 2019

Environmental Justice Analysis: Analyzing Southern California Supply Investments from a Human Right to Water Perspective
UCLA Luskin Center, April 2019

Orange County Water Reliability Study
Municipal Water District of Orange County, March 2019

Assessment of ISTAP reports
Michael Hanemann, June 2018

Neutral Third Party Review of proposed Poseidon plant
State Water Board, September 2017

Staff presentation on Poseidon’s proposed desalination plant
California Fish & Game Commission, August 2017

California Fish & Game Deliberation on Poseidon’s proposed desalination plant
State Lands Commission, August 2017

Letter: Comments on Poseidon Resources’ proposed seawater desalination project at Huntington Beach
California Fish & Game Commission, August 2017

The Cost of Alternative Water Supply and Efficiency Options in California
Pacific Institute, October 2016

Groundwater Model Evaluation
HydroFocus, September 2016

Review of Water Demand Forecasts for OCWD 
James Fryer, July 2016

Marine and Coastal Impacts of Seawater Desalination in California
Stanford’s Water in the West program, May 2016

New Sources of California’s Water Supply (PDF) (recommends desalination as a last-resort supply option)
California State Assembly Select Committee on Water Consumption and Alternative Sources, March 2016

Final Staff Report including Final Substitute Environmental Documentation for California’s Desalination Policy (PDF) (concludes that screens proposed by Poseidon would reduce mortality of small fish and eggs by just 1%, see page 62)
California State Water Board, May 2015

Key Issues for Seawater Desalination in California: Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions (PDF)
Pacific Institute, May 2013

Key Issues in Seawater Desalination in California: Costs and Financing (PDF)
Pacific Institute, February 2013

Stanford CEQA Comments (PDF)
Stanford Environmental Law Clinic

5 Things to Know About Desalination
Public Policy Institute of California

What advocates say 

Letter to the Orange County Democratic Party Environmental Justice Subcommittee
Azul, SoCal 350, Oak View ComUNIDAD, Idle No More, Mujeres de la Tierra, Environmental Justice Coalition for Water,  Physicians for Social Responsibility—LA, Communities for a Better Environment, Pachamama Alliance—LA, Action Center on Race and the Economy, Center for Community Action and Environmental Justice, June 2020

Environmental and equity opposition letter 
Coalition of 24 nonprofit and community groups, April 2019

Summary of MWDOC Reliability Study
Orange County Coastkeeper, March 2019

Comments on OCWD Term Sheet for Proposed Poseidon Desalination Plant
Orange County Coastkeeper, June 2018

Public Comment: State Lands Commission Testimony on Poseidon Proposed Desalination Plant
California Coastal Protection Network, Natural Resources Defense Council, Heal the Bay, Oceana and Defenders of Wildlife, August 2017

Testimony on Poseidon proposal at State Lands Commission hearing
Surfrider Foundation, August 2017

Testimony on Poseidon proposal at State Lands Commission hearing
Azul, August 2017

Environmental and Equity Group Opposition Letter (PDF)
27 Nonprofit and Community Organizations

Environmental justice concerns on the Huntington Beach plant (PDF)
Eight Equity Leaders and Organizers

Proceed with Caution: California’s Droughts and Desalination in Context
Natural Resources Defense Council, March 2016

True Cost of Desalination in Orange County
Orange County Coastkeeper


More on Brookfield Infrastructure (parent company of Poseidon)

Profile of Brookfield Infrastructure Partners—the parent company of Poseidon Water
Forbes, May 2017

Brookfield ruthless in extracting profits
Sydney Morning Herald, September 2015